Date Archives September 2017

Deprecated APIs



  • As Android Versions keep being updated, many APIs and their methods are being revised.
  • Even though those API’s methods get deprecated, developers can still use the methods. (but they will see compiler’s warning)
  • However, developers are discouraged to keep using these methods because it is dangerous or there is better alternatives.





Multi Core vs. Hyper-threading


Multi Core

  • Provides multiple cores in CPU.
  • Dual-core can run two different processes at a time. (quad-core = 4 cores = 4 processes at a time)



  • Make one physical processing unit to two logical processing units.
  • Little bit of cheat to make it looks like two different processing unit.
  • Keep switching between two tasks, but actually one at a time.
  • Even though divided logically, CPU with hyper-threading performs better than CPU without hyper-threading.



  • i5: 4 cores without hyper-threading => 4 processing units
  • i7: 4 cores with hyper-threading => 8 processing units(logically)




Diagrams are from UB CSE421 lecture slides (Professor: Karthik Dantu)



FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)

  • Vary frequencies for each user.
  • If number of users increases, it becomes complicated.

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)

  • Using same frequency, divide into many time slots.
  • Allocating different time slot for each user.
  • They can speak only when their turns.

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)

  • Each pair communicates in different languages.
  • The mobile and base station are able to distinguish between signals transmitted simultaneously over the same frequency allocation.

Bandwidth and Frequency


Bandwidth (bps – bits per second)

  • Amount of data that can be transmitted in per unit time.
  • Difference between highest frequency and lowest frequency (bandwidth = high – low)

Frequency (Hertz)

  • Number of complete cycles per second.
    • ex) 60Hz = 60 cycles per second


  • Low Frequency Wave
    • There are many frequencies already being used by other appliances such as microwave ovens(causes interferences).
    • Small bandwidth: There is no much space not being used around it.
    • Too crowded these days.
    • Covers farther distance
    • Low speed
    • ex) Wifi (2.4GHz or 5 GHz)
  • High Frequency Wave
    • Large bandwidth: There is a lot of space not being used around it.
    • Covers short distance
    • High speed
    • ex) Millimeter Wave (60GHz)


Latency vs. Jitter

Screen Shot 2017-09-26 at 11.18.26 PM


  • Amount of time it takes for a packet to travel from point A to point B(or round-trip).
    • ex) Data Latency: time between a query and the result displaying on the screen.


  • Variance in latency over time
  • If every packet takes exactly the same amout of time to travle from A to B, there is no jitter.