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Shells

Shell is a program taking commands from a keyboard and giving them to operating system. Below are three popular shells on Linux. bash Bourne ...

Virtual Consoles

Virtual Consoles enable multi-user logins on a single machine. For example, you can login with your account and also as a root.   By ...

Down Call vs. Up Call

Down Call User code(unprivileged) enters to kernel with trap(interrupt). Up Call Kernel(privileged) enters to user code with IPC(Interprocess ...

Testing Methods

These are currently popular methods to test software. Fuzz Testing Input massive invalid, unexpected, or random data(Fuzz) to find errors or ...